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What is prosthodontics?

What is prosthodontics?

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What is prosthodontics?

Term prosthodontics refers to use of substitutes made from various biocompatible materials that esthetically and functionally replace the teeth. That includes dental crowns, dental bridges, ceramic veneers and partial and total dentures.

The prosthodontics solve the problems of fractured, fallen, broken, darkened and otherwise damaged or lost teeth.

At Videntis Dental Center we offer proven and modern prosthodontistry solutions and patients who opt for prosthodontistry will be under expert supervision of dr. Anamarija Marof, who has over 30 years of experience with dental implants.

Types of prosthodontics

Dental prosthodontics is classified into removable and fixed.

Removable prosthodontics

Removable prosthetic dental replacement means that a patient can take it out and return to its place. In other words, prosthodontics are not permanently fixed. Removable prosthodontics usually includes traditional partial and total dentures. There are also implanting solutions, somewhere halfway between fixed and removable prosthodontics. These include modern dentures on locomotor implants. Find out more about them on our web page “Types of implant solutions“.

Fixed prosthodontics

If a patient has a prosthetic dental replacement that cannot be removed, but is permanently attached to the remaining healthy teeth or implants it is called fixed prosthodontics.

Fixed prosthodontics include dental bridges that replace a part of the dental arch, individual dental crowns and ceramic veneers.

It is worth mentioning fixed denture on implants, “all-on-4” and “all-on-6”, to replace all teeth in the entire jaw. Find out more about these solutions on our web page “Types of implant solutions“.

What is prosthodontics made of?

In modern prosthodontristry, several basic and tested materials are regularly used. The parts that replace natural appearance and function of the teeth are now made of glass-ceramics, tooth ceramics, zirconia ceramics (colloquial “zirconia”), polyether ether ketone (shortened PEEK) and acrylic resins. All of these materials are biocompatible, highly wear-resistant and retain their volume, shape and color despite everyday use.

However, they greatly vary in price, quality and esthetics. Therefore, the final selection of the material should reflect a balance between the dentist’s recommendation and the patient’s expectations.

Glass-ceramics have been used in prosthodontics since the 1970’s. It has high mechanical strength and exceptional esthetic properties, we use glass-ceramics to make Emax and Empress non-metal dental crowns. Due to its high esthetic properties, this material is suitable for very faithful imitations of a natural tooth.

Dental ceramics are developed from porcelain and in terms of composition and properties feature both hard porcelain and glass. Thanks to this, the dental ceramics, in addition to other qualities, is characterized with high hardness and esthetic properties that perfectly reflect beauty and translucency of a natural tooth. This is one of the oldest materials used in prosthodontistry.

Zirconia used in prosthodontics is actually white color ceramics made of zirconia. It has been used in prosthodontics for the last 15 years. While dental ceramics crowns are baked in special furnaces, zirconia bases and dental crowns are made with precision CAD/CAM milling from ceramic blocks. It is a very solid material that gives very beautiful esthetic results.

This polymer-based material has long been used in medicine for manufacture of prosthetic replacement for joints and bones. Due to its ideal mechanical and esthetic features, it is been increasingly used in prosthodontic solution manufacture.

PEEK is very well accepted since it does not cause allergies, has no taste, is light and firm and has found its application in production of crowns, bridges and partial dentures.

Characteristics of modern acrylates are high esthetics and durability. In addition to durable dentures made of acrylates, this material is used to make temporary dentures the patient wears while waiting for a durable ceramics denture. Of all the aforementioned materials, the acrylic resin is most suitable for making dentures.

Metal in prosthodontics

Various types of metal are also used in manufacture of dentures. Metal supports the dental ceramic crowns and is also used to strengthen acrylic dentures.

The most commonly used metals have different biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and durability. Cobalt and chromium alloys are generally used for crown support, as a more favorable support options while various titanium alloys are used as more expensive version. Other metals, especially gold, palladium, platinum and silver alloys can be mentioned in the same context, but they are rarely used today. To strengthen acrylic dentures, biocompatible and durable alloy called wironite is used.

The basic difference between cobalt alloy and titanium alloy in crowns is the fact that titanium has higher biocompatibility and other properties, such as low specific weight, due to which it has increasingly proven to be an ideal solution for metal ceramic crown support.

Zubotehnički laboratorij za izradu zubne protetike

Tooth ceramics esthetics

Although all today’s prosthodontics are very advanced in terms of esthetics, the greatest esthetic quality is achieved when we use materials that completely look like a natural tooth. This is a very important factor not only for the possibility of shaping materials and white shades, but also for the translucency that the natural teeth have. Hence, the ceramics in which the metal is used, so-called metal-ceramics, greatly differs from the one in which metal is not used, i.e. non-metallic or complete ceramics.

Dental metal-ceramics

The standard metal-ceramics consists of ceramic dental crowns made of cobalt and chromium alloy. It is different from the titanium-ceramics in which the ceramic crown is placed on a titanium alloy base, but basically both consist of a metal base and a ceramic crown.

Since the metal base physically inhibits the passage of light, metal-ceramics and titanium ceramics do not feature light conductivity and natural appearance. In addition, in these crowns the edge of the metal base can be seen beneath the ceramic, revealing an artificial tooth. The solution for the metal edge is to add a ceramic edge, thus increasing the cost of this otherwise more affordable prosthodontic option.

Metalkeramičke krunice
Bezmetalne krunice

Non-metallic tooth ceramics

Almost completely natural look is provided with dental crowns made entirely of tooth ceramics and Emax and Empress dental crowns made of pure glass ceramics. These prosthetic substitutes are called non-metal dental ceramics and most often are placed on the front teeth due to their esthetic properties.

An individual dental crown of pure ceramic on a tooth with a beautiful white shade gives the perfect natural look and beauty of the real tooth.

Dental metal-ceramics

The standard metal-ceramics consists of ceramic dental crowns made of cobalt and chromium alloy. It is different from the titanium-ceramics in which the ceramic crown is placed on a titanium alloy base, but basically both consist of a metal base and a ceramic crown.

Since the metal base physically inhibits the passage of light, metal-ceramics and titanium ceramics do not feature light conductivity and natural appearance. In addition, in these crowns the edge of the metal base can be seen beneath the ceramic, revealing an artificial tooth. The solution for the metal edge is to add a ceramic edge, thus increasing the cost of this otherwise more affordable prosthodontic option.

Metalkeramičke krunice

Non-metallic tooth ceramics

Almost completely natural look is provided with dental crowns made entirely of tooth ceramics and Emax and Empress dental crowns made of pure glass ceramics. These prosthetic substitutes are called non-metal dental ceramics and most often are placed on the front teeth due to their esthetic properties.

An individual dental crown of pure ceramic on a tooth with a beautiful white shade gives the perfect natural look and beauty of the real tooth.

Bezmetalne krunice

Prosthodontistry is a reliable solution.

It’s time to smile again and enjoy the food!

We offer non-metalic, titanium-ceramic and metal-ceramic dental crowns and bridges. For cosmetic corrections we offer ceramic or composite veneers. If you have questions call us at – 00385 1 5515 300 – or send an inquiry.

Emax and Empress glass-ceramics

As far as Emax and Empress are concerned, they do not differ only in esthetic features but in hardness: Emax glass-ceramics has proven to be harder. Until recently, it was customary to place Emax crowns on premolars and molars where the chewing force can most affect the durability of a ceramic crown, but today’s new generation of Empress dental crowns has also demonstrated good characteristics.

Zirconia ceramics

There is another non-metal option of tooth ceramics. Namely, a dental crown made of zirconia ceramics. There are two non-metal variants of the use of zirconia ceramics, and both have a very natural appearance: an ordinary dental ceramics crown with zirconia ceramics base and dental crown made entirely of zirconia ceramics. There is an overwhelming impression that dental ceramics on zirconia base has more natural appearance than pure ceramics crown.

Tooth ceramics prices

Finally, when we talk about prices, the most affordable is metal-ceramics, then titan-ceramics,while the highest price has the esthetically best solution, non-metal or complete ceramics.

Ceramic veneers

Ceramic veneers fall into prosthetic dental replacements. They beautify the smile and solve simpler functional front teeth problems.

Ceramic veneers may be the ideal solution if:

  • the front teeth are crooked
  • if the enamel of the front teeth is worn out
  • if the front teeth are damaged by cavity
  • in the case of pigmentation which cannot be removed by whitening
  • if the front teeth are too distant
  • for teeth smoothing instead an orthodontic treatment

No matter the reason for ceramic veneers, the result will always be a perfect smile. Therefore, many patients opt for ceramic veneers simply to get a more beautiful smile. Find out more about ceramic veneer on our web page “Tooth veneers”.

Dentures

The simplest replacement of a large number of missing teeth is denture. They are is classified into partial and total dentures.

Partial denture, as the name itself suggests, is used when a patient lacks only part of the teeth. Total denture is applied when all the teeth of one jaw are missing.

Dentures are made of acrylic resins and metal called wironite. The denture base in color and shape very faithfully resembles natural dental flesh. Dental crowns are made of various materials and placed on the base.

Partial dentures can be placed on healthy teeth, but it depends on condition of the remaining healthy teeth of the patient and the type of denture construction.

Total dentures carry chewing force exclusively to dental flesh and bone, which requires patience from the patient. Find out more about them on our web page “Dentures“.

Dentures on implants

With the emergence of implants the dentures placed on installed dental implants have also appeared. Such dentures are the most pleasant and stable solution to missing teeth problem. It is particularly worth to mention fixed total dentures on 4 or 6 implants: All-on-4 and All-on-6.

Removable dentures on locators are also included in dentures on implants. Locators are connectors that allow attaching dentures to embedded implants. Such denture may be removed and returned to its place. Although removable, denture on locators is very stable and firm.

Find out more about implants on our web page “Types of implant solutions“.

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